20Congreso Nacional 
Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencia de Superficies y Vacío A.C.

Fundamentals of Creating and Maintaining a Vacuum
Paul H. Holloway
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-6400

The fundamentals of creating and maintaining vacuum for high technology processes will be described. The discussion will begin with a brief history of the development of vacuum and the ideal gas law. The velocity, impingement rate, and molecular mean free path of an ideal gas will be related to phenomena in a vacuum, and used to develop the concepts of volumetric flow rate, pumping speed, conductance and throughput. The concepts of viscous and molecular flow regimes will be developed and related to operation of vacuum systems. The types of pumps used to create and maintain vacuums will be described, including wet and dry roughing/backing pumps, and high vacuum diffusion, turbomolecular, cryo and getter ion pumps. The gauges appropriate to measurement of vacuum will be discussed, including roughing gauges, high and ultrahigh vacuum gauges, residual gas analyzers, and mass flow contollers. Hardware used in vacuum systems will be reviewed. Finally, vacuum system pump down curves will be illustrated and related to materials selection, outgassing and leaks. Procedures to reduce outgassing by baking and cleaning will be described.

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