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Manipulating atoms with light and its application in Metrology

J. Mauricio López-Romero1, Eduardo De Carlos2, Iván Domínguez-López1, Sergio López-López1, Hagman Ramírez-Reyes3,
1Centro nacional de Metrología, División de Tiempo y Frecuencia
Km. 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marqués Querétaro, México.
2Facultad de Ciencias, UAEM, Avenida Universidad 2001, colonia Chamilpa, Cuernavaca Morelos, C.P. 62210, México.
3Instituto de Física, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. C.P 04360

In recent years, production of cold-atoms ensembles by magneto-optical trapping has become a widely used technique in spectroscopy, in atom interferometry, and metrology. In metrology cold atoms production provides an advanced technique to measure the hyperfine levels of the ground state of the Cs-133 atoms by vertical launching atoms while maintaining low temperatures, as low as 3x10-6 K over absolute zero, allowing the realization of the so called atomic fountain frequency standards and so providing a way to measure, with extremely high accuracy, the energy difference of the hyperfine levels of the ground state of the Cs-133 atoms. With this ultra high resolution spectroscopy is possible to reproduce the definition of the time unit of the International System (SI), the second, with an accuracy of few parts in 1016. In this work we present a brief review of the development of the atomic clocks and we focus on the manipulation of the Cs-133 atoms with light an its application on the reproduction of the time unit, the second, of the SI. We review the mechanisms of the interaction photon-atoms that allows the control of the atom´s internal and external degrees of freedom involved in the Cs-133 cooling. Finally we present the progress done in Mexico at the Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM) in the design, construction, and operation of atomic clocks using atoms manipulation with light.


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