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Materials Characterization
     C.R. Brundle
         Director of Defect and Thin-Film Characterization Laboratory,
Applied Materials

Course Objectives

     Learn how full wafer particle and defect detection, review, and characterization are done in the semiconductor processing and
     equipment industry.
     Understand the different techniques and how they relate to each other in the defect analysis approach (light scattering, optical
     imaging, SEM/EDX-based approaches, more advanced back-up approaches).
     Understand the differences between Survey, Review, and Characterization leading to a root cause and elimination of the
     defect problem, and where each of these fits in the industry.

Course Description

This course provides a working knowledge of the techniques and methodologies for defect metrology and characterization on full
wafers (up to 300mm) in use in the semiconductor processing and equipment industries. The objective is to eliminate the
particle/defect problem. This requires some combination of defect survey (detection), review, and characterization leading to a root
cause. Definition of these terms is given, and the differences in the way individual tool defect issues and overall yield issues are
approached are explained. The relative roles of optical imaging, light scattering, e-beam-based approaches (e.g., SEM/EDX) are
discussed, together with their limitations and advantages. The differences between monitor/blanket wafer analysis and patterned
wafer analysis, and where they fit in the industry are reviewed. Case histories are presented illustrating the connection between the
results of defect analysis and identification of the hardware or process-related defect culprits. Current drives toward automatic defect
review and automatic defect classification are presented, with a discussion of the situations when this is likely to be useful and when
it is not. Advanced full-wafer techniques that are becoming available are briefly discussed (Auger, dual beam FIB, WDX).

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